Targeting dysregulated lipid metabolism for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: Current advancements and future prospects

Neurobiol Dis. 2024 Jun 15:196:106505. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2024.106505. Epub 2024 Apr 19.

Abstract

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are two of the most frequent neurological diseases. The clinical features of AD are memory decline and cognitive dysfunction, while PD mainly manifests as motor dysfunction such as limb tremors, muscle rigidity abnormalities, and slow gait. Abnormalities in cholesterol, sphingolipid, and glycerophospholipid metabolism have been demonstrated to directly exacerbate the progression of AD by stimulating Aβ deposition and tau protein tangles. Indirectly, abnormal lipids can increase the burden on brain vasculature, induce insulin resistance, and affect the structure of neuronal cell membranes. Abnormal lipid metabolism leads to PD through inducing accumulation of α-syn, dysfunction of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and ferroptosis. Great progress has been made in targeting lipid metabolism abnormalities for the treatment of AD and PD in recent years, like metformin, insulin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) agonists, and monoclonal antibodies targeting apolipoprotein E (ApoE). This review comprehensively summarizes the involvement of dysregulated lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of AD and PD, the application of Lipid Monitoring, and emerging lipid regulatory drug targets. A better understanding of the lipidological bases of AD and PD may pave the way for developing effective prevention and treatment methods for neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; ApoE; Lipid metabolism; Mitochondria; PPARs; Parkinson's disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / drug therapy
  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism* / drug effects
  • Lipid Metabolism* / physiology
  • Parkinson Disease* / drug therapy
  • Parkinson Disease* / metabolism