Relationship between plasma tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI) levels, thrombin generation and clinical risk of bleeding in patients with severe haemophilia A or B

Haemophilia. 2024 May;30(3):693-701. doi: 10.1111/hae.15020. Epub 2024 Apr 22.


Introduction: Bleeding severity in severe haemophilic patients, with low thrombin generation (TG) capacity, can vary widely between patients, possibly reflecting differences in tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) level.

Aim: To compare free TFPI (fTFPI) levels in patients with severe haemophilia A (sHA) and severe haemophilia B (sHB) and to investigate in these patients as a whole the relationships between bleeding and TG potential, between TG potential and fTFPI level and between fTFPI level and bleeding tendency.

Methods: Data on bleeding episodes retrospectively recorded during follow-up visits over 5-10 years were collected and used to calculate the annualised joint bleeding rate (AJBR). fTFPI levels and basal TG parameters were determined in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using calibrated automated tomography (CAT).

Results: Mean fTFPI levels did not differ significantly between sHA (n = 34) and sHB (n = 19) patients. Mean values of endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and thrombin peak (peak) in PPP and PRP were two-fold higher when fTFPI levels < 9.4 versus > 14.3 ng/mL. In patients treated on demand, ETP and peak in PRP were doubled when AJBR was 4.9 $ \le 4.9$ , AJBR being halved in patients with a low fTFPI level (9.4 ng/mL). In patients on factor prophylaxis, no association was found between TG parameters and either fTFPI level or AJBR.

Conclusion: In patients treated on demand, bleeding tendency was influenced by fTFPI levels, which in turn affected basal TG potential. In patients on prophylaxis, bleeding tendency is probably determined primarily by the intensity of this treatment.

Keywords: severe haemophilia A; severe haemophilia B; thrombin generation and bleeding rate; tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Hemophilia A* / blood
  • Hemophilia A* / complications
  • Hemophilia B* / blood
  • Hemophilia B* / complications
  • Hemorrhage* / blood
  • Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins* / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Thrombin* / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Thrombin
  • lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor
  • Lipoproteins

Grants and funding