Sivelestat (Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor) as an Anti-inflammatory and Anti-viral Agent: An In Silico Study

Cureus. 2024 Mar 24;16(3):e56846. doi: 10.7759/cureus.56846. eCollection 2024 Mar.

Abstract

Background Sivelestat is a potent and specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor. It is clinically used in treating lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome. This engaged us to undertake the present study in which sivelestat was studied as an anti-inflammatory and anti-viral agent. Methodology The docking study of sivelestat on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), chikungunya virus nonstructural protein-2 (CVnsP2) protease, and influenza A (H1N9) virus neuraminidase was assessed using the Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) Dock (CDOCK) method. Furthermore, molecular physicochemical; bioactivity; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME); toxicity; and Search Tool for Interacting Chemicals (STITCH) analyses were performed by using the Molinspiration (Molinspiration Cheminformatics, Slovensky Grob, Slovak Republic), SwissADME SwissADME (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Quartier Sorge - Bâtiment Amphipôle, Switzerland), pkCSM (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), and STITCH-free online tools. Results The molecular physicochemical assessment of the ligand (sivelestat) showed no (zero) violation and agreed with the thumb rule of five, otherwise known as Lipinski's rule of five. ADME prediction of the ligand (sivelestat) is shown to possess a low gastrointestinal absorption (GIA) property. Similarly, toxicity analysis of the ligand (sivelestat) is predicted to have a hepatotoxicity effect. STITCH analysis reveals that the ligand (sivelestat) has exhibited interactions with the three human proteins. Conclusions The present molecular docking studies showed that the ligand (sivelestat) has successfully docked with all four enzymes of interest. Hence, the current finding has provided a good understanding of sivelestat as an effective suppressor activity against all four enzymes: MMP-2, MMP-9, CVnsP2 protease, and influenza neuraminidase.

Keywords: chikungunya nsp2 protease; influenza neuraminidase; matrix metalloproteinase; molecular docking; sivelestat.