Intraperitoneal prophylactic drain after pancreaticoduodenectomy: an Italian survey

Updates Surg. 2024 Jun;76(3):923-932. doi: 10.1007/s13304-024-01836-0. Epub 2024 Apr 25.


Intraperitoneal prophylactic drain (IPD) use in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still controversial. A survey was designed to investigate surgeons' use of IPD in PD patients through 23 questions and one clinical vignette. For the clinical scenario, respondents were asked to report their regret of omission and commission regarding the use of IPD elicited on a scale between 0 (no regret) and 100 (maximum regret). The threshold model and a multilevel mixed regression were applied. One hundred three (97.2%) respondents confirmed using at least two IPDs. The median regret due to the omission of IPD was 84 (67-100, IQR). The median regret due to the commission of IPD was 10 (3.5-20, IQR). The CR-POPF probability threshold at which drainage omission was the less regrettable choice was 3% (1-50, IQR). The threshold was lower for those surgeons who performed minimally invasive PD (P = 0.048), adopted late removal (P = 0.002), perceived FRS able to predict the risk (P = 0.006), and IPD able to avoid relaparotomy P = 0.036). Drain management policies after PD remain heterogeneous among surgeons. The regret model suggested that IPD omission could be performed in low-risk patients.

Keywords: Drainage; Pancreatectomy; Questionnaire; Regret; Survey.

MeSH terms

  • Drainage*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy* / methods
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Surgeons / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires