Implications of Cardiopulmonary Risk for the Management of COPD: A Narrative Review

Adv Ther. 2024 Jun;41(6):2151-2167. doi: 10.1007/s12325-024-02855-4. Epub 2024 Apr 25.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major global health burden and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. A high proportion of patients with COPD have cardiovascular disease, but there is also evidence that COPD is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Patients with COPD frequently die of respiratory and cardiovascular causes, yet the identification and management of cardiopulmonary risk remain suboptimal owing to limited awareness and clinical intervention. Acute exacerbations punctuate the progression of COPD in many patients, reducing lung function and increasing the risk of subsequent exacerbations and cardiovascular events that may lead to early death. This narrative review defines and summarises the principles of COPD-associated cardiopulmonary risk, and examines respiratory interventions currently available to modify this risk, as well as providing expert opinion on future approaches to addressing cardiopulmonary risk.

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary risk; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Exacerbation; Inhaled therapy; Mortality.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Disease Progression
  • Heart Disease Risk Factors
  • Humans
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / complications
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / therapy
  • Risk Factors