Fabrication of textured functional ingredient based on apple: Sesame by-product

Heliyon. 2024 Apr 15;10(8):e28841. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28841. eCollection 2024 Apr 30.


The search for new sources of fortified components from low-cost and sustainable sources has become a trend in the last decade. Food byproducts containing valuable bioactive compounds such as dietary fiber, protein, and phytochemicals are being used as substrates for obtaining beneficial components that can promote health. Extrusion is an efficient technology for converting food by-products into nutrient-rich food ingredients. The objective of this work was to optimize the extrusion process to obtain the best combination of moisture content (14, 18 and 22%) and screw speed (SS) (120,150 and180 rpm), apple pomace (AP): semi-defatted sesame cake (SDSC) blends (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 w/w) to fabricate textured functional ingredients (TFI) with high values of expansion ratio (ER), water absorption index (WAI), brightness level, total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) and lower hardness based on a central composite design. The optimal treatment was determined at 176 rpm SS, 18% moisture content and a ratio of (75:25) AP: SDSC. The desirability value has indicated an appropriate match between the predicted and the observed response. TFI exhibited higher soluble dietary fiber fraction (WAI) values and lower plate count values during 30 days of storage compared to the unprocessed by-product, suggesting that TFI could be successfully used for the manufacture of innovative, high quality products such as porridge, beverages, cookies, soups and others that could provide health benefits based on the values obtained.

Keywords: Apple pomace; Dietary fiber; Extrusion; Food by-products; Sesame oil cake.