Illustrated Neuroanatomy of Ctenophores: Immunohistochemistry

Methods Mol Biol. 2024:2757:147-161. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3642-8_5.


Ctenophores or comb jellies are representatives of an enigmatic lineage of early branching metazoans with complex tissue and organ organization. Their biology and even microanatomy are not well known for most of these fragile pelagic and deep-water species. Here, we present immunohistochemical protocols successfully tested on more than a dozen ctenophores. This chapter also illustrates neural organization in several reference species of the phylum (Pleurobrachia bachei, P. pileus, Mnemiopsis leidyi, Bolinopsis microptera, Beroe ovata, and B. abyssicola) as well as numerous ciliated structures in different functional systems. The applications of these protocols illuminate a very complex diversification of cell types comparable to many bilaterian lineages.

Keywords: Behavior; Beroe; Bolinopsis; Ctenophora; Electrophysiology; Gap junctions; Mnemiopsis; Neurons; Neuropeptides; Neurotransmitters; Nitric oxide; Pleurobrachia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ctenophora* / anatomy & histology
  • Immunohistochemistry* / methods
  • Neuroanatomy / methods