Diet-induced metabolic and immune impairments are sex-specifically modulated by soluble TNF signaling in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

Neurobiol Dis. 2024 Jun 15:196:106511. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2024.106511. Epub 2024 Apr 24.


Emerging evidence indicates that high-fat, high carbohydrate diet (HFHC) impacts central pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) across both human incidences and animal models. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. Here, we identify compartment-specific metabolic and inflammatory dysregulations that are induced by HFHC diet in the 5xFAD mouse model of AD pathology. We observe that both male and female 5xFAD mice display exacerbated adiposity, cholesterolemia, and dysregulated insulin signaling. Independent of biological sex, HFHC diet also resulted in altered inflammatory cytokine profiles across the gastrointestinal, circulating, and central nervous systems (CNS) compartments demonstrating region-specific impacts of metabolic inflammation. Interestingly, inhibiting the inflammatory cytokine, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) with the brain-permeant soluble TNF inhibitor XPro1595 was able to restore aspects of HFHC-induced metabolic inflammation, but only in male mice. Targeted transcriptomics of CNS regions revealed that inhibition of soluble TNF was sufficient to alter expression of hippocampal and cortical genes associated with beneficial immune and metabolic responses. Collectively, these results suggest that HFHC diet impairs metabolic and inflammatory pathways in an AD-relevant genotype and that soluble TNF has sex-dependent roles in modulating these pathways across anatomical compartments. Modulation of energy homeostasis and inflammation may provide new therapeutic avenues for AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's; Insulin; Metabolic inflammation; Soluble TNF.

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / genetics
  • Alzheimer Disease* / immunology
  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease* / pathology
  • Animals
  • Diet, High-Fat* / adverse effects
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Female
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic*
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha* / metabolism


  • XENP 1595