Dietary intake of copper and gastric cancer: a pooled analysis within the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project

Int J Epidemiol. 2024 Apr 11;53(3):dyae059. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyae059.


Background: Evidence on the potential association between dietary copper intake and gastric cancer (GC) is lacking. Thus, we aimed to evaluate this association within the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project-an international consortium of epidemiological studies on GC.

Methods: Data from five case-control studies within the StoP Project were included (2448 cases, 4350 controls). We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the association between dietary copper intake and GC using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. We also modelled the dose-response relationship between copper intake and GC using a logistic mixed-effects model with fractional polynomial.

Results: The OR for the highest quartile of copper intake compared with the lowest one was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.95; P for trend = 0.013). Results were similar for non-cardia-type (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.57-0.91), intestinal-type (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56-0.99) and other histological-type GC (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96). The dose-response analysis showed a steep decrease in ORs for modest intakes (<1 mg/day), which were subsequently steady for ≤3 mg/day (OR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02-0.41) and slowly increased for higher intakes.

Conclusions: The findings of our large study suggest that copper intake might be inversely associated with GC, although their confirmation by prospective studies is required.

Keywords: Gastric cancer; case–control; consortium; copper; diet; pooled analysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Copper* / administration & dosage
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / epidemiology


  • Copper