Related to the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) daily physical activity in children has become a field of interest. Epidemiological studies have shown that physical activity appears to offer some degree of protection against CHD. Hence a fundamental approach for prevention should begin at childhood. This review covers the state of the art within selected areas of the measurement of physical activity and their relationship to risk indicators of CHD. The areas addressed include the following: the use of different field methods to measure daily physical activity, methodological constraints in children and finally the role of physical activity, physical fitness and training in relation to the risk indicators of CHD in children.