Is a Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1 (VKORC1) Polymorphism a Risk Factor for Nephrolithiasis in Sarcoidosis?

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 18;25(8):4448. doi: 10.3390/ijms25084448.


Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by granuloma formation in various organs. It has been associated with nephrolithiasis. The vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene, which plays a crucial role in vitamin K metabolism, has been implicated in the activation of proteins associated with calcification, including in the forming of nephrolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate the VKORC1 C1173T polymorphism (rs9934438) in a Dutch sarcoidosis cohort, comparing individuals with and without a history of nephrolithiasis. Retrospectively, 424 patients with sarcoidosis were divided into three groups: those with a history of nephrolithiasis (Group I: n = 23), those with hypercalcemia without nephrolithiasis (Group II: n = 38), and those without nephrolithiasis or hypercalcemia (Group III: n = 363). Of the 424 sarcoidosis patients studied, 5.4% had a history of nephrolithiasis (Group I), only two of whom possessed no VKORC1 polymorphisms (OR = 7.73; 95% CI 1.79-33.4; p = 0.001). The presence of a VKORC1 C1173T variant allele was found to be a substantial risk factor for the development of nephrolithiasis in sarcoidosis patients. This study provides novel insights into the genetic basis of nephrolithiasis in sarcoidosis patients, identifying VKORC1 C1173T as a potential contributor. Further research is warranted to elucidate the precise mechanisms and explore potential therapeutic interventions based on these genetic findings.

Keywords: VKORC1; hypercalcemia; kidney stones; nephrolithiasis; sarcoidosis; vitamin K.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alleles
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nephrolithiasis* / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sarcoidosis* / complications
  • Sarcoidosis* / genetics
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases* / genetics


  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases
  • VKORC1 protein, human

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.