Cell-Free Supernatant from a Strain of Bacillus siamensis Isolated from the Skin Showed a Broad Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity

Microorganisms. 2024 Apr 2;12(4):718. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms12040718.

Abstract

In recent years, the search for new compounds with antibacterial activity has drastically increased due to the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. In this study, we analyzed Cell-Free Supernatant (CFS) from Bacillus siamensis, assessing its potential antimicrobial activity against some of the main pathogenic microorganisms of human interest. To achieve this goal, we exploited the natural antagonism of skin-colonizing bacteria and their ability to produce compounds with antimicrobial activity. Biochemical and molecular methods were used to identify 247 strains isolated from the skin. Among these, we found that CFS from a strain of Bacillus siamensis (that we named CPAY1) showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Candida spp. In this study, we gathered information on CFS's antimicrobial activity and on its sensitivity to chemical-physical parameters. Time-kill studies were performed; anti-biofilm activity, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid presence were also investigated. The antimicrobial compounds included in the CFS showed resistance to the proteolytic enzymes and were heat stable. The production of antimicrobial compounds started after 4 h of culture (20 AU/mL). CPAY1 CFS showed antimicrobial activity after 7 h of bacteria co-culture. The anti-biofilm activity of the CPAY1 CFS against all the tested strains was also remarkable. B. siamensis CPAY1 did not reveal the presence of a plasmid and showed susceptibility to all the antibiotics tested.

Keywords: Bacillus siamensis; CFS; antibacterial compounds; skin microbiota.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.