Quantitation of Enterovirus A71 Empty and Full Particles by Sedimentation Velocity Analytical Ultracentrifugation

Viruses. 2024 Apr 8;16(4):573. doi: 10.3390/v16040573.


The enterovirus A71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine is an effective intervention to control the spread of the virus and prevent EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). It is widely administered to infants and children in China. The empty particles (EPs) and full particles (FPs) generated during production have different antigenic and immunogenic properties. However, the antigen detection methods currently used were established without considering the differences in antigenicity between EPs and FPs. There is also a lack of other effective analytical methods for detecting the different particle forms, which hinders the consistency between batches of products. In this study, we analyzed the application of sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) in characterizing the EPs and FPs of EV71. Our results showed that the proportions of the two forms could be quantified simultaneously by SV-AUC. We also determined the repeatability and accuracy of this method and found that both parameters were satisfactory. We assessed SV-AUC for bulk vaccine quality control, and our findings indicated that SV-AUC can be used effectively to analyze the percentage of EPs and FPs and monitor the consistency of the process to ensure the quality of the vaccine.

Keywords: EV71 inactivated vaccine; SV-AUC; empty particles; full particles; quality control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • China
  • Enterovirus A, Human* / immunology
  • Enterovirus A, Human* / isolation & purification
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / prevention & control
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / virology
  • Humans
  • Quality Control
  • Ultracentrifugation* / methods
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology
  • Virion / immunology
  • Virion / isolation & purification


  • Viral Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated