Effects of different antiviral mouthwashes on the surface roughness, hardness, and color stability of composite CAD/CAM materials

J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2024 Jan-Dec:22:22808000241248886. doi: 10.1177/22808000241248886.


Objective: To evaluate the effect of COVID-19 preventive mouthwashes on the surface hardness, surface roughness (Ra), and color change (ΔE) of three different polymer-based composite CAD/CAM materials (Vita Enamic (ENA), Grandio Block (GB), Lava Ultimate (LU)).

Methods: A total of 100 rectangular-shaped specimens with dimensions of 2 mm × 7 mm × 12 mm were obtained by sectioning three different CAD/CAM blocks and randomly divided into five subgroups according to the 30 days of mouthwash immersion protocol as follows: Control: artificial saliva, PVP-I: 1% povidone-iodine, HP: 1.5% hydrogen peroxide, CPC: mouthwash containing 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride, EO: mouthwash containing essential oils. Microhardness, Ra, and ΔE values were measured at baseline and after 30 days of immersion protocols. Data were analyzed using the Wald Chi-square, two-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey tests.

Results: The independent factors (materials and solutions) significantly influenced the microhardness and color (p < 0.001). Ra of the materials was not affected by any of the mouthwashes (p > 0.05). The microhardness and color of each material varied significantly after immersion in PvP-I and HP (p < 0.05). The highest percentage change in microhardness, Ra, and ΔE was found in LU immersed in PvP-I and HP mouthwashes, while the lowest change was found in ENA groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the surface hardness and color of tested polymer-based composite CAD/CAM materials are susceptible to degradation and change after 30 days of immersion in 1% PvP-I and 1.5% HP mouthwashes.

Keywords: CAD/CAM materials; SARS CoV-2; cetylpyridinium chloride; discoloration; essential oils; hydrogen peroxide; microhardness; povidone-iodine; surface roughness.

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents* / chemistry
  • COVID-19
  • Ceramics*
  • Cetylpyridinium / chemistry
  • Color
  • Composite Resins / chemistry
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Hardness*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / chemistry
  • Materials Testing
  • Mouthwashes* / chemistry
  • Povidone-Iodine / chemistry
  • Surface Properties*


  • Mouthwashes
  • Antiviral Agents
  • VITA Enamic
  • Cetylpyridinium
  • Composite Resins
  • Povidone-Iodine
  • Hydrogen Peroxide