Research progress in Fc-effector functions against SARS-CoV-2

J Med Virol. 2024 May;96(5):e29638. doi: 10.1002/jmv.29638.


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused more than 676 million cases in the global human population with approximately 7 million deaths and vaccination has been proved as the most effective countermeasure in reducing clinical complications and mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people. However, the protective elements and correlation of protection induced by vaccination are still not completely understood. Various antibodies with multiple protective mechanisms can be induced simultaneously by vaccination in vivo, thereby complicating the identification and characterization of individual correlate of protection. Recently, an increasing body of observations suggests that antibody-induced Fc-effector functions play a crucial role in combating SARS-CoV-2 infections, including neutralizing antibodies-escaping variants. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the impact of Fc-effector functions in broadly disarming SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and discuss various efforts in harnessing this conserved antibody function to develop an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that can protect humans against infections by SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants of concern.

Keywords: Fc‐effector functions; SARS‐CoV‐2; non‐neutralizing antibody.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing* / immunology
  • Antibodies, Viral* / immunology
  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / immunology
  • COVID-19* / immunology
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments* / immunology
  • SARS-CoV-2* / immunology
  • Vaccination


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants