Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Cadmium (Cd)-Induced Malignancy

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2024 Apr 29. doi: 10.1007/s12011-024-04189-2. Online ahead of print.


The environmental pollution of cadmium is worsening, and its significant carcinogenic effects on humans have been confirmed. Cadmium can induce cancer through various signaling pathways, including the ERK/JNK/p38MAPK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, NF-κB, and Wnt. It can also cause cancer by directly damaging DNA and inhibiting DNA repair systems, or through epigenetic mechanisms such as abnormal DNA methylation, LncRNA, and microRNA. However, the detailed mechanisms of Cd-induced cancer are still not fully understood and require further investigation.

Keywords: Cadmium; DNA damage; Epigenetic; Heavy metals; Malignancy; Signaling pathways.

Publication types

  • Review