Panax ginseng Ameliorates Pituitary-Ovarian Dysfunction Induced by Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation from Cell Phones via Upregulation of the CREM Signaling Pathway

Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2024 Apr 30. doi: 10.2174/0115701638279386240425050818. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Panax ginseng (PG) is a plant that contains ginsenosides, which are considered adaptogens that confer cellular protection. However, the impact of PG on pituitary-ovarian dysfunction and subsequent infertility is unknown. This study investigated the hypothesis that PG would attenuate pituitary-ovarian dysfunction associated with mobile phone's Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) in experimental rat models and the possible involvement of a cAMP Response Element Modulator (CREM)-dependent pathway.

Methods: Twenty adult female Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups, each consisting of five rats. The control group was administered a vehicle (distilled water) orally, while the P. ginseng group received 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng extract orally. The RF-EMR group was exposed to 900MHz radiation, and the RF-EMR + PG group was exposed to the same radiation while also being treated with 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng orally. These treatments were administered daily for a period of 56 days.

Results: The RF-EMR group exhibited significant reductions in serum levels of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone compared to the control group. Moreover, levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly lower in the RF-EMR group compared to the control. Additionally, there was a notable decrease in the expression of the CREM gene, accompanied by disrupted pituitary/ovarian morphology in the RF-EMR group compared to the control. However, the administration of PG mitigated these changes.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that P. ginseng extract shields against pituitary-ovarian impairment linked to RF-EMR exposure from cell phones by boosting antioxidant capacity and promoting the CREM-dependent pathway.

Keywords: CREM; Cell phone; Electromagnetic radiation; Ovary.; Panax ginseng; Pituitary gland.