Redox signaling and oxidative stress in systemic acquired resistance

J Exp Bot. 2024 May 2:erae193. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erae193. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Plants fully depend on their immune systems to defend against pathogens. Upon pathogen attack, plants not only activate immune responses at the infection site but also trigger a defense mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in distal systemic tissues to prevent subsequent infections by a broad-spectrum of pathogens. SAR is induced by mobile signals produced at the infection site. Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in SAR signaling. ROS burst at the infection site is one of the earliest cellular responses following pathogen infection and can spread to systemic tissues through membrane-associated NADPH oxidase-dependent relay-production of ROS. It is well known that ROS ignite redox signaling and when in excess, cause oxidative stress damaging cellular components. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on redox regulation of several SAR signaling components. We discuss the ROS amplification loop in systemic tissues involving multiple SAR mobile signals. Moreover, we highlight the essential role of oxidative stress in generating SAR signals including azelaic acid and extracellular NAD(P) [eNAD(P)]. Finally, we propose that eNAD(P) is a damage-associated molecular pattern serving as a converging point of SAR mobile signals in systemic tissues.

Keywords: Systemic acquired resistance; damage-associated molecular pattern; mobile signal; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; redox signaling; salicylic acid.