miR-133a and miR-135a Regulate All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Mediated Differentiation in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Inhibiting CDX2 Translation and Serve as Prognostic Biomarkers

Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2024 Jan-Dec:23:15330338241248576. doi: 10.1177/15330338241248576.


Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of blood cancer characterized by excessive growth of immature myeloid cells. Unfortunately, the prognosis of pediatric AML remains unfavorable. It is imperative to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying leukemogenesis and explore innovative therapeutic approaches to enhance overall disease outcomes for patients with this condition. Methods: Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR was used to quantify the expression levels of microRNA (miR)-133a and miR-135a in 68 samples from 59 pediatric patients with AML. Dual-luciferase reporter transfection assay, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and western blot analysis were used to investigate the functions of miR-133a and miR-135a. Results: Our study found that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) promoted the expression of miR-133a and miR-135a in AML cells, inhibited caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) expression, and subsequently inhibited the proliferation of AML cells. Additionally, miR-133a and miR-135a were highly expressed in patients with complete remission and those with better survival. Conclusions: miR-133a and miR-135a may play an antioncogenic role in pediatric AML through the ATRA-miRNA133a/135a-CDX2 pathway. They hold promise as potentially favorable prognostic indicators and novel therapeutic targets for pediatric AML.

Keywords: CDX2; acute myeloid leukemia; miR-133a; miR-135a; pediatric; prognosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomarkers, Tumor* / genetics
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / drug effects
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / genetics
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / metabolism
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / pathology
  • Male
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • Prognosis
  • Tretinoin* / pharmacology
  • Tretinoin* / therapeutic use


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • MicroRNAs
  • MIRN133 microRNA, human
  • MIRN135 microRNA, human
  • Tretinoin