Pegvaliase for the treatment of phenylketonuria: Final results of a long-term phase 3 clinical trial program

Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2024 Apr 23:39:101084. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgmr.2024.101084. eCollection 2024 Jun.


Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which results in phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation in the blood and brain, and requires lifelong treatment to keep blood Phe in a safe range. Pegvaliase is an enzyme-substitution therapy approved for individuals with PKU and uncontrolled blood Phe concentrations (>600 μmol/L) despite prior management. Aggregated results from the PRISM clinical trials demonstrated substantial and sustained reductions in blood Phe with a manageable safety profile, but also noted individual variation in time to and dose needed for a first response. This analysis reports longer-term aggregate findings and characterizes individual participant responses to pegvaliase using final data from the randomized trials PRISM-1 (NCT01819727) and PRISM-2 (NCT01889862), and the open-label extension study 165-304 (NCT03694353). In 261 adult participants with a mean of 36.6 months of pegvaliase treatment, 71.3%, 65.1%, and 59.4% achieved clinically significant blood Phe levels of ≤600, ≤360, and ≤ 120 μmol/L, respectively. Some participants achieved blood Phe reductions with <20 mg/day pegvaliase, although most required higher doses. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, median (minimum, maximum) time to first achievement of a blood Phe threshold of ≤600, ≤360, or ≤ 120 μmol/L was 4.4 (0.0, 54.0), 8.0 (0.0, 57.0), and 11.6 (0.0, 66.0) months, respectively. Once achieved, blood Phe levels remained below clinical threshold in most participants. Sustained Phe response (SPR), a new method described within for measuring durability of blood Phe response, was achieved by 85.5%, 84.7%, and 78.1% of blood Phe responders at blood Phe thresholds of ≤600, ≤360, or ≤ 120 μmol/L, respectively. Longer-term safety data were consistent with previous reports, with the most common adverse events (AEs) being arthralgia, injection site reactions, headache, and injection site erythema. The incidence of most AEs, including hypersensitivity AEs, was higher during the early treatment phase (≤6 months) than later during treatment. In conclusion, using data from three key pegvaliase clinical trials, participants treated with pegvaliase were able to reach clinically significant blood Phe reductions to clinical thresholds of ≤600, ≤360, or ≤ 120 μmol/L during early treatment, with safety profiles improving from early to sustained treatment. This study also supports the use of participant-level data and new ways of looking at durable blood Phe responses to better characterize patients' individual PKU treatment journeys.

Keywords: PEGylated phenylalanine ammonia lyase; PRISM; Pegvaliase; Phenylalanine; Phenylketonuria; Recombinant Anabaena variabilis.