High potential extracts from cocoa byproducts through sonotrode optimal extraction and a comprehensive characterization

Ultrason Sonochem. 2024 Jun:106:106887. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2024.106887. Epub 2024 Apr 26.


Cocoa pod husk (CPH) and cocoa bean shell (CBS) are by-products obtained during pre-processing and processing of cocoa beans. Several bioactive compounds have been identified in these by-products that can be used for commercial applications as a way to promote the circular economy. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to recover bioactive compounds from CPH and CBS by sonoextraction process, to determine the type, content, and antioxidant activity in optimized extracts. To achieve our purpose, an optimization strategy using Box-Behnken Design coupled response surface methodology (MRS) was applied. The extraction conditions were optimized. The results obtained for CBS were: TPC (193 mg GAE/g), TEAC (1.02 mmol TE/g), FRAP (1.02 mmol FeSO4/g) and ORAC (2.6 mmol TE/g), while for CPH, the reported values were: TPC (48 mg GAE/g), TEAC (0.30 mmol TE/g), FRAP (0.35 mmol FeSO4/g) and ORAC (0.43 mmol TE/g) under the optimized conditions: Time (XA): 15 min, Amplitude (XB): 80 %, Ethanol (XC): 50 %. The LC-ESI-qTOF-MS analysis results allowed the identification of 79 compounds, of which 39 represent the CBS extract, while 40 compounds were identified in CPH extract. To conclude, sonotrode based extraction could be considered as an efficient and fast alternative for the recovery of bioactive substances from CBS and CPH.

Keywords: Antioxidants; Cocoa by-products; Extraction optimization; Metabolites; Response surface methodology; Sonoextraction.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / isolation & purification
  • Cacao* / chemistry
  • Chemical Fractionation* / methods
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Ultrasonic Waves


  • Plant Extracts
  • Antioxidants