Patient-Reported Anxiety or Depression Increased the Risk of Dissatisfaction Despite Improvement in Pain or Function Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Swedish Register-Based Observational Study of 8,745 Patients

J Arthroplasty. 2024 May 1:S0883-5403(24)00419-4. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2024.04.071. Online ahead of print.


Background: Remaining pain and functional limitations may cause dissatisfaction in patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Furthermore, anxiety and depression are associated with remaining postoperative symptoms and dissatisfaction. We investigated if patient-reported anxiety or depression increased the risk of dissatisfaction 1 year after TKA in patients who improved in pain or function.

Methods: Data on primary TKAs due to osteoarthritis between 2017 and 2019 were obtained from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register. Out of 14,120 patients, 9,911 completed the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and satisfaction rate with the result of the surgery. According to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-Osteoarthritis Research Society International criteria patients were classified as responders (improved in pain or function) or nonresponders. Anxiety and depression were assessed through EuroQol-5 Dimension 3 levels. Log-linear regression models estimated the risk ratios (RRs) for dissatisfaction in all patients and stratified by age groups (< 65, 65 to 74, and > 74 years). There were 8,745 patients who were classified as responders whereas 11% were defined as dissatisfied. The proportion of patients who reported anxiety or depression was 35% preoperatively and 17% postoperatively.

Results: Anxiety or depression increased the risk of dissatisfaction preoperatively (RR 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.09 to 1.40) and postoperatively (RR 2.65, confidence interval 2.33 to 3.00). Patients younger than 65 years reported preoperative anxiety or depression to a greater extent but did not have an increased risk of dissatisfaction.

Conclusions: Patient-reported anxiety or depression preoperatively and postoperatively are important and potentially treatable factors to consider, as they were found to increase the risk of dissatisfaction after TKA despite improvements in pain or function.

Keywords: OMERACT-OARSI responder; joint replacement; mental health; patient-reported outcome measures; satisfaction; total knee replacement.