Soil microeukaryotic communities and phosphorus-cycling microorganisms respond to chloropicrin fumigation and azoxystrobin application

Sci Total Environ. 2024 Jul 10:933:172871. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.172871. Epub 2024 Apr 30.


Fumigants and fungicides are effective at controlling soil-borne pathogens but might also adversely affect soil beneficial microbes, such as soil phosphorus (P) solubilizing microbes, further altering nutrient cycling processes. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the fumigant chloropicrin (CP) and the fungicide azoxystrobin (AZO) on soil microeukaryotes and P-cycling related soil bacteria through a greenhouse experiment. Soil microeukaryotic communities and bacterial communities containing two phosphomonoesterase encoding genes (phoC and phoD) were analysed using high-throughput sequencing methods. Results showed that, when applied at the field recommended application dosage, the fungicide AZO had no significant influence on the community structure of soil microeukaryotes and phoD-containing bacteria. However, in CP-fumigated soils, the soil microeukaryotic community composition changed from fungi-dominated to protist-dominated. CP fumigation significantly decreased the total phoC/phoD gene copy number but increased the relative abundance of some phoC/phoD-containing bacteria (such as Sinorhizobium and Streptomyces), which are significantly positively correlated to available P compositions in soil. The structural equation model (SEM) confirmed that CP fumigation could affect soil available P content directly by altering phoC-/phoD-containing bacteria, or indirectly by affecting phoC/phoD gene abundance and acid/alkaline phosphatases activity in soil. The inconsistent changes in phoC/phoD-containing bacteria, phoC/phoD gene number, and the phosphomonoesterase activities indicated that enzyme secretion may not be the only way for P solubilizing soil microorganisms to regulate P availability after soil fumigation. The outcome of this study can provide theoretical support for the design of soil beneficial microorganism recovery strategies and the regulation of phosphate fertilizer after soil fumigation.

Keywords: Azoxystrobin; Chloropicrin; Microeukaryotes; phoC; phoD.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria
  • Fumigation
  • Fungicides, Industrial*
  • Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated*
  • Microbiota / drug effects
  • Phosphorus* / analysis
  • Pyrimidines*
  • Soil Microbiology*
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Soil* / chemistry
  • Strobilurins*


  • Strobilurins
  • azoxystrobin
  • Phosphorus
  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Pyrimidines
  • chloropicrin
  • Soil
  • Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
  • Soil Pollutants