Navigating the landscape of epitranscriptomics and host immunity

Genome Res. 2024 May 15;34(4):515-529. doi: 10.1101/gr.278412.123.

Abstract

RNA modifications, also termed epitranscriptomic marks, encompass chemical alterations to individual nucleotides, including processes such as methylation and editing. These marks contribute to a wide range of biological processes, many of which are related to host immune system defense. The functions of immune-related RNA modifications can be categorized into three main groups: regulation of immunogenic RNAs, control of genes involved in innate immune response, and facilitation of adaptive immunity. Here, we provide an overview of recent research findings that elucidate the contributions of RNA modifications to each of these processes. We also discuss relevant methods for genome-wide identification of RNA modifications and their immunogenic substrates. Finally, we highlight recent advances in cancer immunotherapies that aim to reduce cancer cell viability by targeting the enzymes responsible for RNA modifications. Our presentation of these dynamic research avenues sets the stage for future investigations in this field.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / genetics
  • Animals
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate* / genetics
  • Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Neoplasms* / immunology
  • RNA / genetics
  • RNA / metabolism
  • RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
  • Transcriptome*