Mitral Annular Disjunction in the Context of Mitral Valve Prolapse: Identifying the At-Risk Patient

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2024 Apr 18:S1936-878X(24)00119-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2024.03.006. Online ahead of print.


Mitral annular disjunction (MAD), a separation between the left atrium/mitral valve annulus and the left ventricular myocardium, is frequently seen in patients with arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse. Although an association exists between MAD and ventricular arrhythmias, little is known regarding the identification of individuals at high risk. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography can play an important role in both the diagnosis and risk stratification of MAD. Due to a paucity of data, clinical decision making in a patient with MAD is challenging and remains largely empirical. Although MAD itself can be corrected surgically, the prevention and treatment of associated arrhythmias may require medical therapy, catheter ablation, and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Prospective data are required to define the role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, targeted catheter ablation, and surgical correction in selected, at-risk patients.

Keywords: arrhythmias; disjunction; imaging; mitral annular; mitral valve prolapse.

Publication types

  • Review