Systematic review of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging T1 and T2 mapping in patients with Takotsubo syndrome

Heliyon. 2024 Apr 16;10(9):e29755. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e29755. eCollection 2024 May 15.


Background: Current imaging advancements quantify the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived T1 and T2 tissue characterization as robust indicators for cardiomyopathies, but limited literature exists on its clinical application in Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This systematic review evaluated the T1 and T2 parametric mapping to delineate the current diagnostic and prognostic CMR imaging outcomes in TTS.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search until October 2023 was performed on ScienceDirect, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library by two independent reviewers adhering to the PRISMA framework. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the methodological quality of studies.

Results: Out of 198 results, 8 studies were included in this qualitative synthesis, accounting for a total population of 399 subjects (TTS = 201, controls = 175, acute myocarditis = 14, and acute regional myocardial oedema without infarction = 9). Approximately 50.4 % were TTS patients aged between 61 and 73 years, whereof, females (n = 181, 90.0 %) and apical variants (n = 180, 89.6 %) were significantly higher, and emotional stressor (n = 42; 20.9 %) was more prevalent than physical (n = 27; 13.4 %). The NOS identified 62.5 % of studies as moderate and 37.5 % as high quality. Parametric tissue mapping revealed significantly prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times at 1.5T and 3T respectively in TTS (1053-1164 msec, 1292-1438 msec; and 56-67 msec, 60-90 msec) with higher extracellular volume (ECV) fraction (29-36 %), compared to healthy subjects (944-1211 msec, 1189-1251 msec; and 46-54 msec, 32-68 msec; 23-29 %) and myocarditis (1058 msec, 60 msec). Other significant myocardial abnormalities included increased left ventricular (LV) end-systolic and diastolic volume and reduced global longitudinal strain. Overall, myocardial oedema, altered LV mass and strain, and worse LV systolic function, with higher native T1, T2, and ECV values were consistent.

Conclusions: Future research with substantially larger clinical trials is vital to explore the CMR imaging findings in diverse TTS patient cohorts and correlate the T1 and T2 mapping outcomes with demographic/clinical covariates. CMR is a valuable imaging tool for TTS diagnosis and prognostication. T1 and T2 parametric mapping facilitates the quantification of oedema, inflammation, and myocardial injury in Takotsubo.

Keywords: CMR; Myocardial deformation; Prognosis; T1 and T2 mapping; Takotsubo.