Emerging biosensor probes for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) detection

Mikrochim Acta. 2024 May 6;191(6):300. doi: 10.1007/s00604-024-06380-7.


Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), originating from the non-enzymatic glycosylation of βVal1 residues in hemoglobin (Hb), is an essential biomarker indicating average blood glucose levels over a period of 2 to 3 months without external environmental disturbances, thereby serving as the gold standard in the management of diabetes instead of blood glucose testing. The emergence of HbA1c biosensors presents affordable, readily available options for glycemic monitoring, offering significant benefits to small-scale laboratories and clinics. Utilizing nanomaterials coupled with high-specificity probes as integral components for recognition, labeling, and signal transduction, these sensors demonstrate exceptional sensitivity and selectivity in HbA1c detection. This review mainly focuses on the emerging probes and strategies integral to HbA1c sensor development. We discussed the advantages and limitations of various probes in sensor construction as well as recent advances in diverse sensing strategies for HbA1c measurement and their potential clinical applications, highlighting the critical gaps in current technologies and future needs in this evolving field.

Keywords: Biosensor; Glycated hemoglobin; HbA1c; Nanomaterials.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques* / methods
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis
  • Glycated Hemoglobin* / analysis
  • Humans


  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • Blood Glucose