Noncontrast CT Selected Thrombectomy vs Medical Management for Late-Window Anterior Large Vessel Occlusion

Neurology. 2024 May 28;102(10):e209324. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000209324. Epub 2024 May 6.


Background and objectives: There is uncertainty whether patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) presenting in the late 6-hour to 24-hour time window can be selected for endovascular therapy (EVT) by noncontrast CT (NCCT) and CT angiography (CTA) for LVO detection. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients selected for EVT by NCCT compared with those medically managed in the extended time window.

Methods: This multinational cohort study was conducted at 66 sites across 10 countries. Consecutive patients with proximal anterior LVO stroke selected for EVT by NCCT or medically managed and presenting within 6-24 hours of time last seen well (TSLW) from January 2014 to May 2022 were included. The primary end point was the 90-day ordinal shift in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) and multivariable methods were used.

Results: Of 5,098 patients screened, 839 patients were included, with a median (interquartile range) age of 75 (64-83) years; 455 (54.2%) were women. There were 616 patients selected to undergo EVT by NCCT (73.4%) and 223 (26.6%) who were medically managed. In IPTW analyses, there was a more favorable 90-day ordinal mRS shift in patients selected by NCCT to EVT vs those who were medically managed (odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% CI 1.53-2.59; p < 0.001). There were higher rates of 90-day functional independence (mRS 0-2) in the EVT group (40.1% vs 18.4%, OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.11-5.20; p < 0.001). sICH was nonsignificantly higher in the EVT group (8.5% vs 1.4%, OR 3.77, 95% CI 0.72-19.7, p = 0.12). Mortality at 90 days was lower in the EVT vs MM group (23.9% vs 32.3%, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.83, p = 0.002).

Discussion: In patients with proximal anterior LVO in the extended time window, there was a lower rate of disability and mortality in patients selected with NCCT and CTA to EVT compared with those who were medically managed. These findings support the use of NCCT as a simpler and more inclusive approach to patient selection in the extended window.

Trial registration information: This study was registered at under NCT04096248.

Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion presenting with ischemic stroke from 6 to 24 hours, compared with medical management, those undergoing thrombectomy based on NCCT have reduced disability and mortality at 90 days.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Cohort Studies
  • Computed Tomography Angiography
  • Endovascular Procedures* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Thrombectomy* / methods
  • Time-to-Treatment
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome

Associated data