Lung function, atopy, specific hypersensitivity, and smoking of workers in the enzyme detergent industry over 11 years

Br J Ind Med. 1985 Jan;42(1):43-50. doi: 10.1136/oem.42.1.43.


A study of 2800 workers employed in three factories of the two major manufacturers of enzymatic products in the United Kingdom covering 11 years of operation from 1969 to 1980 showed that 2344 workers had sufficient lung function data to meet the operational criteria and these were analysed in three separate groups by factory locations. Spirometry and prick tests for specific skin reactions to standardised enzyme were performed at six monthly intervals for the first six years of the study and then annually. Factory enzyme dust and total dust measurements were made to determine the degree of dust exposure of the subjects. The lung function of the factory groups was analysed for the effects of working in the detergent industry, the degree of exposure to enzymes, skin prick test positivity to enzymes, atopicity, and smoking. The 4.5% of workers who had experienced respiratory effects from enzymes were analysed separately. Exposure to the enzyme allergen has had no significant long term effect on the lung function of the detergent workers. A higher proportion of atopics than non-atopics became skin test positive to the allergen and more smokers than non-smokers were sensitised. The overall lung function of detergent workers showed 39 ml/year loss in FEV1 on the 11 year longitudinal study and 51 ml/year loss on the lateral (cross sectional) analysis with better lung function in the south east than the north west of England. In the development of the methodology for the study several potential problems were discovered that could remain unrecognised in a cross sectional analysis performed in isolation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Allergens / immunology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Detergents / adverse effects*
  • England
  • Enzymes / adverse effects*
  • Enzymes / immunology
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Immediate / physiopathology*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Lung / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Medicine*
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / physiopathology
  • Skin Tests
  • Smoking*
  • Surface-Active Agents / adverse effects*
  • Vital Capacity


  • Allergens
  • Detergents
  • Enzymes
  • Surface-Active Agents