Relationship between the cGAS-STING and NF-κB pathways-role in neurotoxicity

Biomed Pharmacother. 2024 Jun:175:116698. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116698. Epub 2024 May 6.


Neurotoxicity can cause a range of symptoms and disorders in humans, including neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders, nerve conduction abnormalities, neuroinflammation, autoimmune disorders, and cognitive deficits. The cyclic guanosine-adenosine synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway and NF-κB pathway are two important signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response. The cGAS-STING pathway is activated by the recognition of intracellular DNA, which triggers the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β, and IL-6. These cytokines play a role in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons. The NF-κB pathway is activated by various stimuli, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral particle components, and neurotoxins. NF-κB activation may lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote neuroinflammation and cause neuronal damage. A potential interaction exists between the cGAS-STING and NF-κB pathways, and NF-κB activation blocks STING degradation by inhibiting microtubule-mediated STING transport. This review examines the progress of research on the roles of these pathways in neurotoxicity and their interrelationships. Understanding the mechanisms of these pathways will provide valuable therapeutic insights for preventing and controlling neurotoxicity.

Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB pathway; Neurotoxicity; Oxidative stress; cGAS−STING pathway.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins* / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B* / metabolism
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes / etiology
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes / metabolism
  • Nucleotidyltransferases* / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*


  • NF-kappa B
  • Nucleotidyltransferases
  • Membrane Proteins
  • STING1 protein, human
  • cGAS protein, human