Advanced Immunomodulatory Biomaterials for Therapeutic Applications

Adv Healthc Mater. 2024 May 8:e2304496. doi: 10.1002/adhm.202304496. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The multifaceted biological defense system modulating complex immune responses against pathogens and foreign materials plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and disease progression. Recently developed biomaterials that can specifically regulate immune responses, nanoparticles, graphene, and functional hydrogels have contributed to the advancement of tissue engineering as well as disease treatment. The interaction between innate and adaptive immunity, collectively determining immune responses, can be regulated by mechanobiological recognition and adaptation of immune cells to the extracellular microenvironment. Therefore, applying immunomodulation to tissue regeneration and cancer therapy involves manipulating the properties of biomaterials by tailoring their composition in the context of the immune system. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how the physicochemical attributes of biomaterials determine immune responses, focusing on the physical properties that influence innate and adaptive immunity. This review also underscores the critical aspect of biomaterial-based immune engineering for the development of novel therapeutics and emphasizes the importance of understanding the biomaterials-mediated immunological mechanisms and their role in modulating the immune system.

Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; immune system; immunomodulation; mechano‐regulation; therapeutics; tissue regeneration.

Publication types

  • Review