The cGAS-STING pathway in cardiovascular diseases: from basic research to clinical perspectives

Cell Biosci. 2024 May 8;14(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s13578-024-01242-4.

Abstract

The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling pathway, an important component of the innate immune system, is involved in the development of several diseases. Ectopic DNA-induced inflammatory responses are involved in several pathological processes. Repeated damage to tissues and metabolic organelles releases a large number of damage-associated molecular patterns (mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, and exogenous DNA). The DNA fragments released into the cytoplasm are sensed by the sensor cGAS to initiate immune responses through the bridging protein STING. Many recent studies have revealed a regulatory role of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, atherosclerosis, and aortic dissection/aneurysm. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that inhibiting the cGAS-STING signaling pathway can significantly inhibit myocardial hypertrophy and inflammatory cell infiltration. Therefore, this review is intended to identify risk factors for activating the cGAS-STING pathway to reduce risks and to simultaneously further elucidate the biological function of this pathway in the cardiovascular field, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Inflammatory response; Inhibitors; Risk factors; cGAS-STING pathway.

Publication types

  • Review