Apolipoprotein E Is Upregulated in Blood and Circulating Monocytes of Indian Patients With Visceral Leishmaniasis

Parasite Immunol. 2024 May;46(5):e13036. doi: 10.1111/pim.13036.


Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been associated with several diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. ApoE also has documented immunomodulatory functions. We investigated gene expression in circulating monocytes and in bone marrows of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) living in an endemic area in Bihar, India, and contrasted these with control healthy subjects or other diagnostic bone marrows from individuals in the same region. Samples from VL patients were obtained prior to initiating treatment. Our study revealed significant upregulated expression of the apoE transcript in patients with VL. Furthermore, the levels of ApoE protein were elevated in serum samples of subjects with VL compared with healthy endemic controls. These observations may provide clues regarding the complex interactions between lipid metabolism and immunoregulation of infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: ApoE; Apolipoprotein E; India; leishmaniasis; monocytes; visceral leishmaniasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Apolipoproteins E* / genetics
  • Bone Marrow
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral* / blood
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral* / immunology
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral* / parasitology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes* / immunology
  • Up-Regulation*
  • Young Adult