Omegasomes control formation, expansion, and closure of autophagosomes

Bioessays. 2024 Jun;46(6):e2400038. doi: 10.1002/bies.202400038. Epub 2024 May 9.


Autophagy, an essential cellular process for maintaining cellular homeostasis and eliminating harmful cytoplasmic objects, involves the de novo formation of double-membraned autophagosomes that engulf and degrade cellular debris, protein aggregates, damaged organelles, and pathogens. Central to this process is the phagophore, which forms from donor membranes rich in lipids synthesized at various cellular sites, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which has emerged as a primary source. The ER-associated omegasomes, characterized by their distinctive omega-shaped structure and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), play a pivotal role in autophagosome formation. Omegasomes are thought to serve as platforms for phagophore assembly by recruiting essential proteins such as DFCP1/ZFYVE1 and facilitating lipid transfer to expand the phagophore. Despite the critical importance of phagophore biogenesis, many aspects remain poorly understood, particularly the complete range of proteins involved in omegasome dynamics, and the detailed mechanisms of lipid transfer and membrane contact site formation.

Keywords: DFCP1; FYVE domain; PI3P; omegasome; phagophore.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autophagosomes* / metabolism
  • Autophagy*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates* / metabolism


  • Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates
  • phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate