Characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with combined burns and trauma in Japan: Analysis of a nationwide trauma registry database

Burns. 2024 Apr 24:S0305-4179(24)00139-6. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2024.04.009. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Introduction: Patients with combined burns and trauma are often seen in the United States. The combination of trauma with burns increases mortality. In contrast, the characteristics and outcomes of these cases remain unknown in Japan. This study investigated the characteristics and outcomes of trauma associated with burns in Japan.

Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted by utilizing data from the Japan Trauma Data Bank for the period between 2004 and 2017. We evaluated the characteristics of burn patients (n = 5783) divided into two groups: burns only (n = 5537) and combined burns and trauma (n = 246). Clinical characteristics, including patient background, severity of trauma, injury mechanism, total body surface area affected, injury location, treatments, and clinical outcomes, were examined.

Results: Most patients in both the groups were injured by flames. The number proportion of patients with 40-89% of the total body surface area affected was 1069/5537 (19.3%) in the burn-only group and 23/246 (9.3%) in the combined burn and trauma group. The in-hospital mortality was 1006/5537 (18.2%) in the burn-only group and 17/246 (6.9%) in the combined burn and trauma group.

Conclusions: We demonstrated the characteristics of Japanese patients with burns only compared with those with combined burns and trauma. Flames were the main cause of burns, and in-hospital mortality was lower in the combined burn and trauma group associated with a smaller burn area.

Keywords: Burn; Critically ill; Flame; Mortality; Trauma.