The dynamic changes in volatile metabolites provide a new understanding for the special flavor formation in z. Mioga flower buds during the growth stages

Food Res Int. 2024 Jun:186:114347. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2024.114347. Epub 2024 Apr 18.


Although Z. mioga flower buds are popular among consumers for its unique spicy flavor, high nutritional and medicinal value, there are few reports on the formation and changes of the flavor during its growth and maturation process. The understanding of the profile of volatile compounds would help to unravel the flavor formation for Z. mioga flower buds during growth. The volatile changes in Z. mioga flower buds were analyzed by GC-MS and a total of 182 volatile compounds identified, and the terpenoids accounted for the most abundant volatile substances. Almost all the identified volatiles presented an intuitive upward trend throughout the growth period and reached the maximum at the later stage of development (DS3 or DS4). Regarding the PCA and HCA results, there were significant differences found among the four stages, and the DS3 was the critical node. The top 50 differential volatiles screened by OPLS-DA and PLS-DA were all up-regulated, and the correlation analysis indicated that terpenoids might synergize with other chemical types of volatiles to jointly affect the flavor formation of Z. mioga flower buds during growth. The association network for flavor omics revealed that the most important sensory flavor for Z. mioga flower buds were woody and sweet, and the main contribution compounds for the unique flavor contained β-guaiene, β-farnesene, δ-cadinene and citronellyl isobutanoate. Taken together, the results of this study provided a reference for flavor quality evaluation of flower buds and determination of the best harvest period.

Keywords: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Growth stage; Headspace solid-phase microextraction; Volatile compounds; Z. mioga flower buds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Flowers* / growth & development
  • Flowers* / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry*
  • Taste
  • Terpenes / analysis
  • Terpenes / metabolism
  • Volatile Organic Compounds* / analysis
  • Volatile Organic Compounds* / metabolism


  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Terpenes