Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Polymer-Infiltrated Tetrapodal Zinc Oxide in Different Variants

Materials (Basel). 2024 Apr 29;17(9):2112. doi: 10.3390/ma17092112.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of weight ratio, the shape of the precursor particles, and the application of a phosphate-monomer-containing primer on the mechanical properties of polymer infiltrated ceramic networks (PICNs) using zinc oxide. Two different types of zinc oxide particles were used as precursors to produce zinc oxide networks by sintering, each with two different densities resulting in two different weight ratios of the PICNs. For each of these different networks, two subgroups were built: one involving the application of a phosphate-monomer-containing primer prior to the infiltration of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA and one without. Elastic modulus and flexural strength were determined by using the three-point bending test. Vertical substance loss determined by the chewing simulation was evaluated with a laser scanning microscope. There was a statistically significant influence of the type of precursor particles on the flexural strength and in some cases on the elastic modulus. The application of a primer lead to a significant increase in the flexural strength and in most cases also in the elastic modulus. A higher weight ratio of zinc oxide led to a significantly higher elastic modulus. Few statistically significant differences were found for the vertical substance loss. By varying the shape of the particles and the weight fraction of zinc oxide, the mechanical properties of the investigated PICN can be controlled. The use of a phosphate-monomer-containing primer strengthens the bond between the infiltrated polymer and the zinc oxide, thus increasing the strength of the composite.

Keywords: BisGMA; PICN; TEGDMA; flexural strength; primer; tetrapodal zinc oxide.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.