After the injection into mice of culture medium of P388D1 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, 5-hydroxytryptamine accumulated in the liver and blood glucose declined. The factors capable of inducing these responses were purified by gel filtration and chromatofocusing. With these procedures, the activity to induce the increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine in the liver accompanied the activity to induce hypoglycaemia. Moreover, through the purification, the factors were found in the fraction of interleukin 1, a lymphocyte-activating factor. These results suggest that the factors capable of inducing the increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine and hypoglycaemia are likely to be interleukin 1 molecules or molecules closely related to interleukin 1. The present and previous findings together with those in the literature support the idea that the increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine in the liver might be a cause of hypoglycaemia. These findings may provide new and important information about the roles of macrophages in inflammation or in immune responses.