Molecular characteristics of tubo-ovarian carcinosarcoma at different anatomic locations

Virchows Arch. 2024 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00428-024-03821-9. Online ahead of print.


Carcinosarcoma (CS) is an uncommon and clinically aggressive malignancy. The objective of the present study was to characterize the molecular features of CS at various anatomic locations, including serous effusions. Specimens (n = 32) consisted of 25 biopsies/surgical resection specimens and 7 serous effusions (6 peritoneal, 1 pleural) from 25 patients. Fresh-frozen cell pellets and surgical specimens underwent targeted next-generation sequencing covering 50 unique genes. A total of 31 mutations were found in 25 of the 32 tumors studied, of which 1 had 3 mutations, 4 had 2 different mutations, and 20 had a single mutation. The most common mutations were in TP53 (n = 25 in 24 tumors; 1 tumor with 2 different mutations), with less common mutations found in RB1 (n = 2), MET (n = 1), KRAS (n = 1), PTEN (n = 1), and KIT (n = 1). Patient-matched specimens harbored the same TP53 mutation. Tumors with no detected mutations were more common in serous effusion specimens (3/7; 43%) compared with surgical specimens (4/25; 16%). In conclusion, the molecular landscape of CS is dominated by TP53 mutations, reinforcing the observation that the majority of these tumors develop from high-grade serous carcinoma. Whether CS cells in serous effusions differ from their counterparts in solid lesions remains uncertain.

Keywords: Carcinosarcoma; Effusion; Solid metastasis; TP53; Targeted sequencing.