Personalized nutritional management in the transition from non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease to dialysis

Kidney Res Clin Pract. 2024 May 10. doi: 10.23876/j.krcp.23.142. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Dialysis has been the dominant treatment regimen in end-stage kidney disease as a means to remove uremic waste products and to maintain electrolyte, acid base, and fluid balance. However, given that dialysis may not always provide a survival benefit nor improved quality of life in certain subpopulations, there is growing recognition of the need for conservative and preservative management as an alternative treatment strategy for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Personalized nutritional management tailored to patient's sociodemographics, social needs, psychological status, health literacy level, and preferences is a key component of conservative and preservative care, as well as in the management of patients transitioning from non-dialysis dependent CKD to dialysis. In this review, we discuss the nutritional and metabolic alterations that ensue in CKD; the rationale for low-protein diets in the conservative and preservative management of advanced CKD; the role of plant-based diets in kidney health; emerging data on dietary potassium and sodium intake on CKD outcomes; and the practical implementation of dietary interventions in advanced kidney disease.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Conservative management; Dietary protein intake; Nutrition; Plant-based diet.