Determinants of 30-day mortality in elderly patients admitted to a cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2024 May;30(5):328-336. doi: 10.14744/tjtes.2024.00569.

Abstract

Background: This study aims to identify the factors influencing 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients aged 65 and older undergoing cardiovascular surgery.

Methods: Data from 360 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between January 2012 and August 2021 in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit (CVS ICU) were analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups: "mortality+" (33 patients) and "mortality-" (327 patients). Factors influencing mortality, including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk factors, complications, and outcomes, were assessed.

Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups in factors affecting mortality, including extubation time, ICU stay duration, blood transfusion, surgical reexploration, aortic clamp duration, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and the lowest systolic blood pressure during the first 24 hours in the ICU (p<0.05). The "mortality+" group had longer extubation times and ICU stays, required more blood transfusions, and had higher BUN-creatinine ratios, but lower systolic blood pressures, GFR, and HbA1c levels. Mortality was also higher in patients needing noradrenaline infusions and those who underwent reoperation for bleeding (p<0.05).

Conclusion: By optimizing preoperative renal function, minimizing extubation time, shortening ICU stays, and carefully managing blood transfusions, surgical reexplorations, aortic clamp duration, and HbA1c levels, we believe that the mortality rate can be reduced in elderly patients. Key strategies include shortening aortic clamp times, reducing perioperative blood transfusions, and ensuring effective bleeding control.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / mortality
  • Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures / mortality
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units* / statistics & numerical data
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors