Effects of ketamine on penile tissues in an experimental priapism model in rats

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2024 May;30(5):309-315. doi: 10.14744/tjtes.2024.33262.


Background: This study aimed to evaluate the histopathological and biochemical effects of ketamine on penile tissues following ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by priapism.

Methods: Twenty-four male rats were randomized into three groups. Group 1 served as the control group. Group 2 underwent the priapism model to induce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Group 3, the treatment group, experienced a similar ischemia-reperfusion model as Group 2; additionally, 50 mg/kg of ketamine was administered intraperitoneally just before reperfusion. Blood biochemical analyses and penile histopathological evaluations were performed.

Results: In Group 3, significant improvements were observed in all histopathological scores, including desquamation, edema, inflammation, and vasocongestion compared to Group 2 (p<0.001). Blood biochemical analyses showed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were recorded as 10 in Group 2, with a significant decrease in Group 3 (p=0.013). Similarly, proinflammatory cytokine levels, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were found to be suppressed in Group 3 compared to Group 2 (p=0.003, p=0.022, and p=0.028, respectively). Antioxidant enzyme activities, such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were higher in Group 3 compared to Group 2 (p=0.016 and p=0.024, respec-tively).

Conclusion: Ketamine is an effective anesthetic agent in alleviating the effects of penile ischemia-reperfusion injury.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Dissociative / administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Interleukin-1beta / blood
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Ketamine* / administration & dosage
  • Ketamine* / pharmacology
  • Ketamine* / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde* / metabolism
  • Penis* / blood supply
  • Penis* / drug effects
  • Penis* / pathology
  • Priapism* / drug therapy
  • Priapism* / etiology
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Reperfusion Injury* / drug therapy
  • Reperfusion Injury* / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Ketamine
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Anesthetics, Dissociative
  • Interleukin-1beta