Resilience to diabetic retinopathy

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2024 Jul:101:101271. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2024.101271. Epub 2024 May 11.


Chronic elevation of blood glucose at first causes relatively minor changes to the neural and vascular components of the retina. As the duration of hyperglycemia persists, the nature and extent of damage increases and becomes readily detectable. While this second, overt manifestation of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been studied extensively, what prevents maximal damage from the very start of hyperglycemia remains largely unexplored. Recent studies indicate that diabetes (DM) engages mitochondria-based defense during the retinopathy-resistant phase, and thereby enables the retina to remain healthy in the face of hyperglycemia. Such resilience is transient, and its deterioration results in progressive accumulation of retinal damage. The concepts that co-emerge with these discoveries set the stage for novel intellectual and therapeutic opportunities within the DR field. Identification of biomarkers and mediators of protection from DM-mediated damage will enable development of resilience-based therapies that will indefinitely delay the onset of DR.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetic Retinopathy*
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Mitochondria
  • Retina


  • Blood Glucose