Transgender and gender diverse people with endometriosis: A perspective on affirming gynaecological care

Womens Health (Lond). 2024 Jan-Dec:20:17455057241251974. doi: 10.1177/17455057241251974.


Transgender and gender diverse people presumed female at birth experience gynaecological conditions, such as chronic pelvic pain at elevated rates, estimated to impact between 51% and 72% of this population, compared to rates of up to 26.6% in cisgender women. The negative impact of these conditions is likely amplified due to limited access to safe and affirming healthcare. Despite this high prevalence rate, there is limited research investigating the prevalence, presentation or management options for trans and gender diverse people with endometriosis. Cisgender women with endometriosis report barriers to accessing care, with lengthy times to diagnosis and limited treatment options available. However, barriers for trans and gender diverse individuals are enhanced by physician bias and lack of education in gender-affirming care. This is reflected in stories of discrimination and denial of basic healthcare. A healthcare environment built on the presumption that gynaecological patients are women, others trans and gender diverse patients, which can result in avoidance of needed medical care. A lack of knowledge of gender-affirming care alongside healthcare provider bias highlights a need for gender-affirming care and bias reduction training in undergraduate healthcare provider curricula. Research to date assessing current curriculum in Australia and Aotearoa (New Zealand) shows limited inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, intersex, asexual and other related identities content as a whole with gender-affirming care being among the least-frequently addressed topics. This review will detail barriers to accessing gender-affirming healthcare specific to gynaecology, interweaving the experiences of a non-binary individual seeking access to gender-affirming endometriosis care.

Keywords: chronic pelvic pain; education; endometriosis; gender diverse; menstruation; non-binary; transgender.

Plain language summary

Transgender and gender diverse people with endometriosis: a perspective on affirming gynaecological careTransgender and gender diverse people have limited access to safe and affirming healthcare. Barriers to accessing care are particularly prominent for those presumed female at birth attempting to access gynaecological care for conditions, such as endometriosis or chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A key barrier to safe and affirming healthcare for this population is a lack of inclusion of trans and gender diverse health in healthcare provider curriculum. The dearth of healthcare providers knowledgeable in gender-affirming care results in healthcare discrimination and poorer health outcomes for trans and gender diverse people.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Endometriosis* / epidemiology
  • Endometriosis* / therapy
  • Female
  • Gynecology
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Transgender Persons* / psychology