Whole transcriptome sequencing reveals the activity of the PLA2 family members in Androctonus crassicauda (Scorpionida: Buthidae) venom gland

FASEB J. 2024 May 31;38(10):e23658. doi: 10.1096/fj.202400178RR.


Phospholipase A2 is the most abundant venom gland enzyme, whose activity leads to the activation of the inflammatory response by accumulating lipid mediators. This study aimed to identify, classify, and investigate the properties of venom PLA2 isoforms. Then, the present findings were confirmed by chemically measuring the activity of PLA2. The sequences representing PLA2 annotation were extracted from the Androctonus crassicauda transcriptome dataset using BLAS searches against the local PLA2 database. We found several cDNA sequences of PLA2 classified and named by conducting multiple searches as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases, calcium-dependent PLA2s, calcium-independent PLA2s, and secreted PLA2s. The largest and smallest isoforms of these proteins range between approximately 70.34 kDa (iPLA2) and 17.75 kDa (cPLA2). Among sPLA2 isoforms, sPLA2GXIIA and sPLA2G3 with ORF encoding 169 and 299 amino acids are the smallest and largest secreted PLA2, respectively. These results collectively suggested that A. crassicauda venom has PLA2 activity, and the members of this protein family may have important biological roles in lipid metabolism. This study also revealed the interaction between members of PLA2s in the PPI network. The results of this study would greatly help with the classification, evolutionary relationships, and interactions between PLA2 family proteins in the gene network.

Keywords: A. crassicauda; phospholipase A2; venom gland transcriptome.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Arthropod Proteins / genetics
  • Arthropod Proteins / metabolism
  • Phospholipases A2* / genetics
  • Phospholipases A2* / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Scorpions / genetics
  • Transcriptome*