Environment and systemic lupus erythematosus

Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2024 May;42(5):1104-1114. doi: 10.55563/clinexprheumatol/17vmqc. Epub 2024 May 14.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations and a relapsing-remitting course. SLE pathogenesis is the result of complex interactions between ethnic, genetic, epigenetic, immunoregulatory, hormonal and environmental factors, and several aspects of these multifactorial connections are still unclear. Overall, for the disease development, an environmental trigger may induce immunological dysfunction in genetically predisposed individuals. This review aims to summarise the most relevant data on the impact of environmental factors on the incidence of SLE and on disease activity and damage in patients with an established diagnosis of SLE.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Environment
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Gene-Environment Interaction*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / diagnosis
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / genetics
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / immunology
  • Risk Factors