Development and evaluation of a food literacy questionnaire for schoolchildren in France

Appetite. 2024 Aug 1:199:107420. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2024.107420. Epub 2024 May 12.


Food literacy is gaining importance in nutrition education programs for children. To date, food literacy assessment tools have been developed in many countries, however, none exist in France. The objectives of this study were to develop a questionnaire and to evaluate its measurement properties among French schoolchildren aged 8-11 years. The questionnaire was developed in three phases: i) item selection (literature review and adaptation or creation of items) and content validity (submission to an expert panel), ii) questionnaire development including a pre-test in a small sample of children (n = 41) and item reduction and dimensionality based on the responses of children who completed the questionnaire in 31 schools between December 2022 and March 2023, and iii) questionnaire evaluation in terms of reliability, validity and acceptability. In total, 1187 responses were included in the analysis. The mean age of the children was 9.6 ± 0.7 years (girls: 51.2%, boys: 48.8%). The development process resulted in a 25-item questionnaire with good acceptability and satisfactory estimated reliability (McDonald omega coefficient = 0.73). Factor evaluation revealed a three-dimensional structure encompassing food and nutrition knowledge, participation in food preparation activities and food habits. To our knowledge, this study was the first to assess food literacy for schoolchildren in France. Our questionnaire can contribute to assess the factors that make food literacy vary, especially regarding socioeconomic variables to target priority populations for nutrition education actions and to describe changes in food literacy scores from a longitudinal perspective.

Keywords: Children; Food literacy; Health education; Health program; Nutrition.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Feeding Behavior* / psychology
  • Female
  • France
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Literacy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Schools
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards