The role of proinflammatory cytokines and CXC chemokines (CXCL1-CXCL16) in the progression of prostate cancer: insights on their therapeutic management

Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2024 May 14;29(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s11658-024-00591-9.


Reproductive cancers are malignancies that develop in the reproductive organs. One of the leading cancers affecting the male reproductive system on a global scale is prostate cancer (PCa). The negative consequences of PCa metastases endure and are severe, significantly affecting mortality and life quality for those who are affected. The association between inflammation and PCa has captured interest for a while. Inflammatory cells, cytokines, CXC chemokines, signaling pathways, and other elements make up the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is characterized by inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines and CXC chemokines are especially crucial for PCa development and prognosis. Cytokines (interleukins) and CXC chemokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-17, TGF-β, TNF-α, CXCL1-CXCL6, and CXCL8-CXCL16 are thought to be responsible for the pleiotropic effects of PCa, which include inflammation, progression, angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration in advanced PCa, and therapeutic resistance. The inflammatory cytokine and CXC chemokines systems are also promising candidates for PCa suppression and immunotherapy. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to provide insight on how the spectra of inflammatory cytokines and CXC chemokines evolve as PCa develops and spreads. We also discussed recent developments in our awareness of the diverse molecular signaling pathways of these circulating cytokines and CXC chemokines, as well as their associated receptors, which may one day serve as PCa-targeted therapies. Moreover, the current status and potential of theranostic PCa therapies based on cytokines, CXC chemokines, and CXC receptors (CXCRs) are examined.

Keywords: CXC chemokines; Cytokines; Inflammation; Prostate cancer (PCa); Targeted therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chemokines, CXC* / genetics
  • Chemokines, CXC* / metabolism
  • Cytokines* / metabolism
  • Disease Progression*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Microenvironment / genetics