Recurrent erosion of the cornea has been well documented in patients with nontraumatic anterior membrane dystrophies of various types. We examined five patients who, in addition to an erosion, developed stromal keratitis. Three of these patients were subjected to a complete microbiologic workup, but the lesions were all sterile. The lesions healed with conservative treatment of patching and, in some cases, a soft contact lens. Stromal keratitis should be recognized as a complication of the non-traumatic recurrent erosion syndrome, which in turn is frequently associated with anterior membrane dystrophy. The finding of such anterior membrane changes in either eye will lead to the correct diagnosis and treatment of the affected eye.