This report presents the major findings of the Nepal Blindness Survey, the first nationwide epidemiological survey of blindness, which was conducted in 1979-80. The survey was designed to gather data that could be used to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in the country. Ancillary studies were conducted to obtain information on socioeconomic correlates and other risk factors of blinding conditions and patterns of health care utilization.The nationwide blindness prevalence rate is 0.84%. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness, accounting for over 80% of all avoidable blindness. Trachoma is the most prevalent blinding condition, affecting 6.5% of the population. Very few cases of childhood blindness were detected.The implications of the survey findings for programme planning, health manpower development, and health education are discussed.